(Day-1) Basic of Computer- Free ADCA Course (Advance Diploma in Computer Applications Course)

ADCA- Advance Diploma in Computer Applications

Topic We Learn in ADCA (Advance Diploma in Computer Applications) Course

  1. Basic of Computer
  2. Notepad
  3. Wordpad
  4. MS Office (MS Word, MS Excel, MS Powerpoint)
  5. Photoshop
  6. Page Maker
  7. Coral Draw
  8. Internet
  9. HTML and CSS
  10. Accounting  

Computer Basic (Introduction of Computer)

Computer is an electronic device that receives input, stores or processes the input as per user instructions and provides output in desired format or in other way we can say that computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept data (input), process the data according to specified rules, produce information (output), and store the information for future use. 

Any kind of computers consists of Hardware and Software.

 

Hardware: Computer hardware is the collection of physical elements that constitutes a computer system. Computer hardware refers to the physical parts or components of a computer such as the monitor, mouse, keyboard, computer data storage, hard drive disk (HDD), system unit (graphic cards, sound cards, memory, motherboard and chips), etc. all of which are physical objects that can be touched. 

 


Now we lean about Input and Output Device-

Input Devices- Input device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment to provide data and control signals to an information processing system such as a computer or other information appliance. Input device Translate data from form that humans understand to one that the computer can work with.


 Some Examples of Input Devices are:-

1.Keyboard
2.Mouse (pointing device)
3.Microphone
4.Touch screen
5.Scanner
6.Webcam
7.Touchpads
8.MIDI keyboard
9.Graphics Tablets
10.Cameras
11.Pen Input
12.Video Capture Hardware
13.Microphone
14.Trackballs
15.Barcode reader
16.Digital camera
17.Joystick
18.Gamepad
19.Electronic Whiteboard
 
CPU- Central Processing Unit (CPU). A  CPU  is  brain  of  a  computer.  It  is  responsible  for all  functions  and  processes. Regarding  computing  power,  the  CPU  is  the  most  important  element  of  a  computer system. 

The CPU is comprised of three main parts:
 
a) Arithmetic Logic Unit  (ALU): Executes  all  arithmetic  and  logical  operations. Arithmetic calculations  like  as  addition,  subtraction,  multiplication  and  division. Logical operation like compare numbers, letters, or special characters.

b) Control Unit (CU): Controls and co-ordinates computer components
i) Read the code for the next instruction to be executed.
ii) Increment the program counter so it points to the next instruction.
iii) Read whatever data the instruction requires from cells in memory.
iv) Provide the necessary data to an ALU or register.
v) If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete, instruct the hardware to perform the requested operation.
 
c) Registers: Stores the data that is to be executed next.
 

Primary Memory:-

1. RAM: Random Access Memory (RAM) is a memory scheme within the computer system responsible for storing data on a temporary basis, so that it can be promptly accessed by the processor as and when needed. It is volatile in nature, which means that data will be erased once supply to the storage device is turned off. RAM stores data randomly and the processor accesses these data randomly from the RAM storage. RAM is considered "random access" because you can access any memory cell directly if you know the row and column that intersect at that cell.
 
2. ROM (Read Only Memory): ROM is a permanent form of storage. ROM stays active regardless of whether power supply to it is turned on or off. ROM devices do not allow data stored on them to be modified. 

Secondary Memory:-

Stores data and programs permanently, its retained after the power is turned off.

a) Hard Disk:- A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive, or fixed disk is an electro-mechanical data storage device that stores and retrieves digital data using magnetic storage and one or more rigid rapidly rotating platters coated with magnetic material.

b) Optical disc:- An optical disc drive (ODD) is a disk drive that uses laser light as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from optical discs. Some drives can only read from discs, but recent drives  are  commonly  both  readers  and  recorders,  also  called  burners  or  writers.  Compact  discs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs are common types of optical media which can be read and recorded by such drives

c) Flash Disk:- A storage module made of flash memory chips. A Flash disks have no mechanical platters or access arms, but the term "disk" is used because the data are accessed as if they were on a hard drive. The disk storage structure is emulated.

Output Device- An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment which converts information into human readable form. It can be text, graphics, tactile, audio, and video. Some of the output devices are Visual Display Units (VDU).
 
Example-
 
1. Monitor
2. Printer graphic Output devices
3. Plotters
4. Speakers etc
 

Software- Software, commonly known as programs or apps, consists of all the instructions that tell the hardware how to perform a task. System software includes operating systems, device drivers, diagnostic tools and more. 

Types of Software:-

a)  System  software:- It is  responsible  for  controlling,  integrating,  and managing  the individual hardware components of a computer system so that other software and the users of the system see it as a functional unit without having to be concerned with  the  low-level  details  such  as transferring  data  from  memory  to  disk,  or rendering text onto a display. Generally, system software consists of an operating system  and  some fundamental  utilities  such  as  disk  format,  file  managers, display managers, text editors, user authentication (login) and management tools and networking and device control software. 

Example:
 
1. Microsoft Windows 
2. Linux
3. Unix
4. Mac OSX
5. DOS 
 

b). Application software:- It is used to accomplish specific tasks other than just running the computer system. Application software may consist of a single program, such as  an  image  viewer;  a  small  collection  of  programs (often  called  a  software package) that work closely together to accomplish a task, such as a spreadsheet or text processing system; a larger collection (often called a software suite) of related but  independent  programs  and packages  that  have  a  common  user  interface  or shared data format, such as Microsoft Office, which consists of closely integrated word  processor,spreadsheet,  database,  etc.;  or  a  software  system,  such  as  a data base management system, which is a collection of fundamental programs that may provide some service to a variety of other independent applications.

Examples:-
1. Opera Browser 
2. Microsoft Word (Word Processing) 
3. Microsoft Excel (Spreadsheet software)
4. MySQL (Database Software)
5. Microsoft PowerPoint (Presentation Software) etc 

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